Learn about analyzers, computer systems … spread out in a 27 km circumference under the giant LHC particle accelerator project, viewers will understand more about the operation of the planet’s most expensive machine. man-made.
Learn about the greatest machine in human history
Observing from the universe, the scientists found that ordinary matter such as galaxies, stars and planets accounted for only 4% of the universe. The rest is black matter (23%) and dark energy (73%). Physicists believe that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could open the door to these cognitive gaps.
The main purpose to build it is to break the current limitations and fundamental theories of particle physics. CERN head, French physicist Robert Aymar said: “The findings from the € 6.4 billion ($ 9.2 billion) project, bringing together researchers from 50 countries will bring improvements. ever-great scientific set. ”
The LHC began testing in 2008, but failed after a few days because of helium leakage. After the problem is fixed, it works again. But in the first few days of November 2009, the machine broke down again due to the sudden increase in temperature in many parts. Up to now, the repairing work is completed. The first proton went through a 27km long tunnel.
Structure of an LHC
The giant LHC machine contains more than 1,000 giant magnets to guide the proton in the machine’s pipe, at a speed of 11,000 rpm, roughly the speed of light.
Swiss and French border areas with three circles. The smallest ring (lower right) is the Synchrotron Proton, the middle ring is the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) with a circumference of 7 km and the largest is LEP, with a portion of Lake Geneva having a circumference of 27 km. The LHC can accelerate particles to energies of 14 TeV (14,000 billion electron volts).
Diagram of the location of the Analysis Units in the 27km Tunnel. LHC is currently operating at 3.5 TeV. It is only half the design capacity but is three and a half times higher than the world’s second largest particle accelerator, the US Tevatron.
The magnet system of the machine is cooled by liquid helium. The machine is located at a depth of 100 m below the ground in the French-Swiss border area. The tunnel has a diameter of 3.8 m, has a concrete structure and was built between 1983 and 1988.
Six analyzers (detectors) have been built into the LHC system, located in large burrows below the ground excavated at the LHC intersections. Two of them, ATLAS (black matter detector) and Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) (Higgs detectors, “Lord’s particles”) are large multi-purpose particle analyzers. A set of A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) and LHCb with more specific functions are responsible for understanding moments after Big Bang’s “clones” and detecting antimatter particles. The other two are much smaller, TOTEM and LHCf, for other specialized research
Here are pictures of the analyzers:
ATLAS – one of two multi-purpose analyzers, will be used to look for new physical signs, including the origin of mass and auxiliary dimensions. ATLAS detectors contain a dense array of concentric pillars, where there is interaction of the collision proton beam.
Like ATLAS, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) will scour the Higgs particles and look for clues about the nature of dark matter. In the picture is the inner “Heart” of the CMS machine.
ALICE will study a “liquid” form of matter called a plasma quark-gluon, a very short-lived form after the Big Bang.
LHCb – compares the amounts of matter and antimatter produced during the Big Bang. The LHCb will try to find out what happened to “lost” antimatter. LHCb is very large, 6X7 square meters consisting of 3,300 blocks containing scintillator, optical fiber and lead. It will measure the energy of particles produced during proton-proton collisions.
TOTEM – measure the size of the proton and LHC’s luminosity. In quantum physics, brightness affects the accuracy of a large particle accelerator in conflict creation.
LHCf – study of naturally occurring cosmic rays.
The computing system for the LHC project is also the largest computer network in the world. The collisions of photons are stored on computers with a capacity of 15 terabytes of data each year. Most of the data will be stored in Oracle databases and some commercial storage systems.
The role of the computer network that CERN establishes is to gather vast computational and storage power to give scientists the ability to access data and computational tools as needed. The sites on this grid also include universities and research centers from Japan to Canada, plus two HP laboratories.
Supermicro Server system at the Calculation Center of LHC Project.
All computing systems contribute power with a total of more than 10,000 processors and hundreds of millions of gigabytes of tape and disk storage. Information about collisions of particles in the accelerator is sent to all research centers in Europe, Asia and the USA for data storage and processing.
Many mysteries of physics and the universe are the goal of experiments. The impact of the LHC experiment will be greater than that of going to the moon for the first time. It is hard to predict the actual benefits of this project.
Heavy duty of a billion-dollar machine
Experts with the LHC, the European Nuclear Research Organization (CERN), estimate the cost of repairs and other safety related to the LHC is about US $ 37 million. The money comes from the budgets of the 20 countries involved. Currently, no country member of CERN has expressed its opposition to the LHC project.
This is the core inside of the LHC. More than 15 countries provide funding for the construction of a large particle accelerator. More than 8,000 scientists and hundreds of universities and laboratories have participated in designing the machine
With the LHC super-powerful particle accelerator, scientists can study particles at sizes of 1/10 billion billion meters, measuring times of 1/10 million billion billion seconds. “We will know what the universe has at 1 / 1,000,000 of a second right after the Big Bang and that is amazing,” said physicist Robert Aymar.
The test was performed on a magnet section in the LHC tunnel. It is important that each magnet is properly positioned so that the beam path is precisely controlled.
The goal of the experiment is also to find “Higgs particles”, a type of elementary particle belonging to the subatomic particle group (smaller than the atom), which is the type of particle that creates mass for matter and creates the universe. The name of the particle is named after Scottish physicist Peter Higgs, who calculated the existence of the particle. While everyone calls the particle Higgs, Peter Higgs is called the particle of God (God particle).
In addition, there are many mysteries of physics and the universe, including supersymmetry, black matter, dark energy …, unsolved mysteries hidden in the dimensions of space that the LHC has. the task of discovery, (most elementary particles cannot be seen leaving traces after the collision but some particles are not detected because they can move along … extra dimensions of space, as well as create objects). Invisible dark matter).